RUBY - one of the most valuable of all gemstones is the birthstone for the month of July. The name comes from the Latin word "Rubeus", meaning "red". Unlike the enormous gems seen in museums and Royal collections, rubies available on the market today are of a more modest size. A 3-4 carat ruby, if of fine quality, is a rare and very expensive gem. Next to diamond, ruby and sapphire (both corundum) is the hardest mineral known and is very compact and dense. As a result, rubies and sapphires are tough and relatively scratch-resistant. That's why, in addition to their beauty, ruby or sapphire is one of the best of all jewelry stones.

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