SAPPHIRE - from the Latin word meaning blue, the birthstone for September. Despite the huge gems you see in museums and Royal collections, sapphires available on the market are of a more modest size. Sapphires of the top blue color over 5 carats, if clean, are rare and expensive. Next to diamond, sapphire and ruby (both corundum) is the hardest mineral known and is very compact and dense. As a result, sapphires and rubies are tough and relatively scratch-resistant. That's why, in addition to their beauty, sapphires and rubies are two of the best jewelry stones.Traditionally, sapphires are usually associated with the color blue. In modern times however, other colors of sapphires: pink, yellow, purple, orange, "padparadscha", white and green are getting more and more popular, some of them reaching very high prices.